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Scientific News

A selection of scientific articles on Cardio Pulmonary, Lung Function, Metabolism and Body Composition

Taking a walk on the heart failure side: comparison of metabolic variables during walking and maximal exertion

20 March 2024
Although cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard to assess exercise capacity, simpler tests (i.e., 6-min walk test, 6MWT) are also commonly used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cardiorespiratory parameters during CPET and 6MWT in a large, multicentre, heterogeneous population. The investi...

Low energy availability reduces myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic muscle protein synthesis in trained females

06 March 2024
Low energy availability (LEA) describes a state where the energy intake is insufficient to cover the energy costs of both exercise energy expenditure and basal physiological body functions.  LEA has been associated with various physiological consequences, such as reproductive dysfunction. However, the effect of LEA on skeletal muscle protein ...

The impact of home enteral nutrition planned with the use of indirect calorimetry on the nutritional status and body composition of cancer patients

02 February 2024
Studies show that malnutrition is common among cancer patients, ranging from about 20% to more than 70%. It is known that malnutrition that is not managed properly worsens the course of the disease, prolongs the hospital stay, and impacts the quality of life and treatment toxicities.   Malnutrition has many negative effects, therefore indi...

Functional performance recovery after individualized nutrition therapy combined with a patient-tailored physical rehabilitation program versus standard physiotherapy in patients with long COVID: a pilot study

04 January 2024
Long COVID is suggested to be present in 14 to 43% of COVID 19-survivors. Literature on this new condition states a need for a multidisciplinary approach including physical exercise and nutrition.  The hypothesis is that an individualized nutritional therapy, combined with individualized physical rehabilitation program may lead to a faster ...

The effect of mild to moderate COVID-19 infection on the cardiorespiratory fitness of firefighters

29 November 2023
An adequate level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is critical for firefighters to perform the strenuous and physiologically demanding work of firefighting safely and effectively.   The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to negatively impact CRF in both the acute phase and longer-term following infection. This study aimed...

Swimming With the COSMED AquaTrainer and K5 Wearable Metabolic System in Breath-by-Breath Mode: Accuracy, Precision, and Repeatability

09 November 2023
The study aims to compare ventilatory and cardiorespiratory responses between the COSMED Aquatrainer coupled with the K4b2 and K5 wearable metabolic systems in breath-by-breath mode over a wide range of swimming speeds.   Swimming with the AquaTrainer coupled with K5 (breath-by-breath mode) yields accurate, precise, and repeatable ventilat...

ESPEN practical and partially revised guideline: clinical nutrition in the intensive care unit

25 October 2023
We would like to focus on the new ESPEN Standard Operating Procedures released on July 2023.   The previous 2019 guideline has been shortened and partially revised to provide best medical nutritional therapy to critically ill patients.   In the current guideline, the timing, route, dose and composition of nutrition will be discussed and ...

Measuring energy requirements during pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis using indirect calorimetry

25 September 2023
The energy demands of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) vary depending on pancreatic function, body composition, lung function, and clinical status. In clinical practice, predictive equations are used to determine energy requirements yet do not reliably account for these factors. Research regarding energy requirements during CF pulmon...

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in the Detection of Unexplained Post-COVID-19 Dyspnea

20 June 2023
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, there have been cases of prolonged symptoms, known as post-acute or chronic COVID-19 (long COVID). Detecting underlying causes of persistent symptoms in these patients can be challenging. In this recent report published in International Heart Journal, authors detail a 39-year-old male with excessive bod...

Energy cost differences between marathon runners and soccer players: constant versus shuttle running

25 May 2023
In the last decades, the energy cost assessment provided new insight on shuttle or constant running as training modalities. The aim of this study was to clarify if marathon runners and soccer players present specific energy cost values related to their training experience performing constant and shuttle running. There is growing evi...

Energy Guidance Using Indirect Calorimetry for Intestinal Failure Patients with Home Parenteral Nutrition: The Right Bag Right at the Start

26 April 2023
Intestinal failure is defined as the inability to absorb the minimum of macro and micronutrients, minerals and vitamins due to a reduction in gut function. In a subpopulation of patients with a dysfunctional gastrointestinal system, treatment with total or supplemental parenteral nutrition is required. The golden standard for the determ...

How do guideline recommended energy targets compare with measured energy expenditure in critically ill adults with obesity: a systematic literature review

06 April 2023
Critically ill patients with obesity have unique and complex nutritional needs, with clinical practice guidelines conflicting regarding recommended energy targets.   The aim of this systematic review was to describe measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) reported in the literature and compare mREE to predicted energy target...

Indirect calorimetry: should it be part of routine care or only used in specific situations?

01 March 2023
Indirect calorimetry is increasingly recommended to guide energy delivery in the ICU. This review aims to provide a critical overview of current literature in support of these recommendations.   There is insufficient evidence to ascertain a mortality benefit from indirect calorimetry-guided energy delivery. However, large variation...

The efficacy of calorimetry-based nutritional support versus Recommended Dietary Intake-based nutritional support in the successful weaning of chronically ventilated patients: A study protocol for a double blind randomized controlled trial

06 February 2023
Mechanically ventilated patients are weaned during acute care hospitalization when it is determined that they are ready for withdrawal. If weaning fails, patients are admitted to a rehabilitation medical center for continued supportive care and additional weaning attempts.   This study's objective is to increase the success rate of...

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Its Place in Medicine

13 January 2023
The evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) predicts morbidity and mortality independent of commonly obtained risk factors isbeyond dispute.   Observations establishing that the addition of CRF to algorithms for estimating cardiovascular disease risk reinforcesthe clinical utility of CRF.   Evidence suggesting that non-exercise e...

Nutritional adequacy and accuracy in long-stay critically ill patients as measured by indirect calorimetry

18 November 2022
Nutritional optimisation is recognised as having significant impact on clinical and functional outcomes of critically ill patients.   Clinical recommendations suggest use of indirect calorimetry guided nutrition in the intensive care unit (ICU), and a recent systematic review demonstrated improved outcomes from its use.   The COVID-1...

‘‘Use of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Evaluate Long COVID-19 Symptoms in Adults. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis’’

26 October 2022
Is exercise capacity reduced more than 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection among those with long COVID-19 (LC) symptoms compared with recovered individuals without symptoms, and what patterns of limitations on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) are common? In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 38 studies comprising 2160 pa...

Oxygen Uptake Measurements and Rate of Perceived Exertion During a Marathon

05 July 2022
Although the marathon race has been democratized, it remains complex due to the famous “hitting the wall” phenomenon after the 25th km. To characterize this “wall” from a physiological and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) perspective in recreational marathon runners, we report first continuous breath-by-breath gas exchange measurements dur...

Routine use of indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients: pros and cons

10 May 2022
In this new review, the authors identify the pros and cons of Indirect Calorimetry (IC) to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and define individual nutritional energy targets among critically ill patients.  Indirect Calorimetry (IC) is a monitoring tool that provides factual information on metabolism. There is significant evidenc...

Metabolically efficient walking assistance using optimized timed forces at the waist

25 March 2022
University of Nebraska at Omaha - Department of Biomechanics - relied on COSMED K5 to measure the metabolic cost of walking with a robotic waist tether. The metabolic rate during walking can be minimized by providing assistance at the waist of individuals undergoing physical therapy. By focusing on the center of mass of an individual, th...

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COSMED is a world leading supplier of Cardio Pulmonary, Metabolic and Body Composition testing solutions to Sports Science, Medicine, Professional Sport and Wellness.

COSMED is a world leading supplier of Cardio Pulmonary, Metabolic and Body Composition testing solutions to Sports Science, Medicine, Professional Sport and Wellness.